Frequency of births: 1/700
b.) Down Syndrome due to Translocation
--> Approximately 3% to 4% of individuals with Down syndrome do not inherit an entire extra chromosome 21, but just some extra chromosome 21 genes, which are attached to another chromosome (usually chromosome 14) and this phenomenon is called a .
--> About 2% to 4% of people with Down syndrome inherit additional genes from chromosome 21, but not in every cell of the body. This is known as .
The only well known risk factor for conceiving a child with Down syndrome is advanced maternal age. The older the woman is at conception, the greater the risk of having a child with Down syndrome.
Mother's age at conception Risk of Down syndrome
· 25 years 1 in 1,250
· 30 years 1 in 1,000
· 35 years 1 in 400
· 40 years 1 in 100
· 45 years 1 in 30
Diagnosis: A.) Screening tests during pregnancy (Ultrasound, Blood tests)
B.)Diagnostic tests during pregnancy (Amniocentesis, CVS
C.) Diagnostic tests for newborns(Through appearance and karyotyping)
There is no specific treatment for Down syndrome. A child born with a gastrointestinal blockage may need major surgery immediately after birth. Certain heart defects may also require surgery.
Needs of children with Down syndrome. .